While poaching occurs from within Gabon, cross-border poaching largely drove the precipitous drop in elephant numbers. For the 18 species, seed limitation constrained population size more than other sources of limitation at ambient conditions. This chapter illustrates using simulations how the assumed Janzen-Connell relationship between distance from parent and seed density can break down. Most of the remaining error in biomass prediction is driven by differences in the proportion of total biomass held in medium size trees 50-70 cm , which shows some continental dependency with American tropical forests presenting the highest proportion of total biomass in these intermediate diameter classes relative to other continents. Ants, birds, and lepidoptera responded similarly to forest clearance or disturbance, whether it be for logging or conversion to agriculture or pasture. Here, we compile a unique pan-tropical dataset of 360 plots located in structurally intact old-growth closed-canopy forest, surveyed using standardised methods, allowing a multi-scale evaluation of diversity-carbon relationships in tropical forests.
Carbon-diversity relationships among all plots across the tropics are absent, and within continents are either weak Asia or absent Amazonia, Africa. The book describes one such emerging model of conservation: the integration of the private sector into partnerships to protect biodiversity and improve forest management. Over this 149-month period, there were 34 months when less than 1% of monitored trees fruited. While such partnershipsare being created in nearly every sector of resource extraction, detailed analyses of how such partnerships work and whether theybenefit biodiversity conservation are rare. Smart quotes can cause problems in the form. Error bars are 95% confidence intervals.
In addition, few data exist for West Africa, and few studies have tracked changes over time, using repeat sampling. Their combined impacts exacerbated decreases in populations of some guilds ape, duiker, monkey, and pig , but counteracted one another for others squirrels, insectivorous and frugivorous birds. While poaching occurs from within Gabon, cross-border poaching largely drove the precipitous drop in elephant numbers. Plots were first divided into Paleotropics vs. Seed traps representing five percent of the crown area were erected below the canopies of 90 trees belonging to nine focal tree species: 3 dispersed by monkeys, 3 dispersed by large frugivorous birds, and 3 wind-dispersed species.
Nave contacts were characterized by chimpanzees that continued to exhibit curiosity throughout the encounter, the arrival of other individuals at the contact location, and relatively prolonged contact with observers average duration: 136 min. We manipulated dispersal patterns of Manilkara mabokeensis, a monkey-dispersed tree, to assess the extent to which spatial distributions of seeds drive seedling recruitment. In a Central African forest first logged 35 years ago, we evaluated this process of ecological erosion in 30 study sites distributed across forest disturbed by logging and hunting, logging alone, and neither logging nor hunting. However, in the microhabitats that received most of the damage, negative effects were likely for far more species. Although community seedling diversity tended to decrease with longer dispersal distances, we found no conclusive evidence that patterns of seed dispersal influence the diversity of the seedling community. Here we describe the structure and content of the West and Central African bushmeat database which holds quantitative data on bushmeat sales, consumption and offtake for 177 species from 275 sites across 11 countries in two regions, spanning three decades of research. These findings suggest that tropical protected areas are often intimately linked ecologically to their surrounding habitats, and that a failure to stem broad-scale loss and degradation of such habitats could sharply increase the likelihood of serious biodiversity declines.
We conducted a large-scale seed addition experiment for five randomly selected tropical tree species, caging a subset of seed addition quadrats against vertebrate predators. At the same time, selective logging may alter competitive interactions among tree species, releasing remaining trees from light, nutrient or space limitations. However, information about ape populations in swamp forests is scarce. This study highlights the importance of using widespread taxon sampling and a multiple evidence approach to diagnose species boundaries and reveal cryptic diversity. To balance conservation with the need for economic development and wild meat in tropical countries, landscapes should be spatially managed to include protected areas, community hunting zones, and production forest.
As tropical forests can have any combination of tree diversity and carbon stocks both will require explicit consideration when optimising policies to manage tropical carbon and biodiversity. However, despite rapid development of metrics to characterize the forest canopy from remotely sensed data, a gap remains between aerial and field inventories. Habitat use during the day was strongly influenced by habitat type and human activities, and to a lesser degree by functional and non-functional roads, and rivers. Averaged across the year, overlap between groups hornbill-primate was significantly lower than combined within-group overlap primate-primate and hornbill-hornbill , showing that primates and hornbills have dissimilar diets and are not redundant as seed dispersers. As a tropical ecologist and conservationist, she has over 15 years of experience in research, conservation, and training in Central Africa, including Cameroon, Gabon, and Republic of Congo. To understand what determines regeneration success of timber species in the Congo Basin, we evaluated whether seedling recruitment rates differed between forest logged 30 years previously and unlogged forest and determined the environmental factors that influence seedling density, growth and survival. We compared patterns of seed rain of nine species of trees disseminated by large birds, monkeys, and wind in a closed canopy forest in Cameroon.
Taking all species together, seedling survival was positively correlated with calcium and negatively with magnesium and available phosphorus. Average chimpanzee density is 0. We asked 1 To what degree are populations seed and establishment limited? Many tropical countries aspire to protect forest to fulfil biodiversity and climate mitigation policy targets, but the conservation strategies needed to achieve these two functions depend critically on the tropical forest tree diversity-carbon storage relationship. Fisher's alpha can decline if the number of stems added to the sample increases disproportionally to the number of new species detected. Error bars are the 2.
We find strongly contrasting variation in diversity and carbon among continents. This study investigated the relative importance of arboreal seed dispersers and seed predators on the initial stage of forest organization—seed deposition. Above Average precipitation mm by month, from which seasons were defined as the short-wet season Oct. Hunting is concentrated within 10 km around villages, creating a hunting halo characterized by heavily altered animal communities composed of relatively small-bodied species. However, despite rapid development of metrics to characterize the forest canopy from remotely sensed data, a gap remains between aerial and field inventories. Note that depicting rainfall by month fails to show the daily variation in precipitation that determines the seasons.
Although seed augmentation enhanced initial seedling density, environmental filtering and post-establishment mortality strongly limited seedling recruitment. Here we couple theoretical models with a large-scale, multi-species seed-sowing experiment to assess the degree to which seed and establishment limitation shape patterns of tropical tree seedling recruitment in a central African forest. Rates of seedling growth increased with available light. The density of primates in the reserve was calculated to be 77 individuals km-2. However, only 9% of protected areas are larger than 14,000 hectares, likely making them too small to conserve ecosystem services and prevent loss of wide-ranging keystone species such as elephant and leopard. A Per-seed recruitment effect size E realized seed and establishment limitation varies between 0 and 1, with 1 representing complete seed limitation and 0 representing complete establishment limitation.