While the solution to the underlying mystery remains as open as it ever was, the clues offered here seem just impossible to ignore. In the book under review, Leonard Babby, an eminent linguist renowned for his influential work on many aspects of the syntax of Russian, presents an ingenious and sophisticated theory of morphosyntax stemming from his previous studies and in many important ways diverging from the current mainstream of generative grammar. I thank all these people and groups for their valuable input. This article considers how this idea relates to traditional notions of compositionality in generative grammar, and examines two modern theories that, although based on different starting assumptions, both readily allow syntactic structures to bear independent meaning. Babby puts forward the theory that this set of arguments the verb's 'argument structure' has a universal hierarchical composition which directly determ Each verb in natural language is associated with a set of arguments, which are not systematically predictable from the verb's meaning and are realized syntactically as the projected sentence's subject, direct object, etc. The work examines this hypothesis by methodically looking at a variety of constructions in English and other languages.
We analyse morphological causative verbs in Lithuanian on the basis of an annotated corpus, studying the distribution of different causative suffixes across the valency types of base verbs, as well as the argument structure of the causatives themselves. This prefix, whose meaning is similar to that of the particle tik 'only', is peculiar in that it can take scope over almost any kind of phrases, including constituents of non-finite embedded clauses. In particular, Miyagawa's work addresses the nature of the relationship between syntax and argument structure, and how case marking and other phenomena help to elucidate this relationship. The E-mail message field is required. The diathesis-driven derivation of adjectives: adjectival small clauses and predicates; 3.
Besides that, it is shown that from a cross-linguistic point of view, a restrictive affix displaying both rigid verb-adjacency and scope flexibility is quite rare. We report the findings of a novel study of case transmission in Russian, based on data collected from 30 speakers. Bookmark Author Subjects ; ; Summary Each verb in natural language is associated with a set of arguments, which are not systematically predictable from the verb's meaning and are realized syntactically as the projected sentence's subject, direct object, etc. The E-mail message field is required. Deriving the predicate instrumental: the status of predicate case. The derivation of hybrid verbal adjuncts; 4.
The book summarizes much of B's previous work on diverse topics in Russian syntax, which includes, but is not limited to, control, case, structure of adjectives, nominalizations, and verbal adjuncts. Since the verbalisers have vocalic phonological realisations with some roots but consonantal realisations with others, and since consonantal realisations give the verb an additional syllable, one can get the impression that in some transitivity alternation pairs the transitive verb is derived from the intransitive verb, whereas in other pairs it is the other way round, and that in still other pairs both verbs are derived from a common base. The paper presents a system for construction classification representing multiple levels of specification, such as grammatical functions, grammatically reflected actants, and lexical semantics, aligned with a compositional system of sign combination mediating between a construction perspective and a valence perspective. Babby determines and empirically justifies the rigid hierarchical organization of argument structure on which this theory rests. Moscow: Russian State University for the Humanities, 329—71.
B's crucial argument for keeping the θ-role and c-selection tiers apart comes from the set of observations suggesting that neither properties of the former can be predicted from the properties of the latter, nor vice versa. However, the book shows, and quite convincingly, that the phenomena Babby investigates can be elegantly and revealingly accounted for from the chosen perspective. All of these analyses demonstrate an intimate relation among case marking, argument structure, and word order. The paper motivates the usefulness of the various functionalities and illustrates the way in which they work together in a formally uniform system. On closer inspection it nevertheless appears that while in some cases the transitive verb is actually formed from the intransitive verb by causativisation, in other cases the transitive verb differs from its intransitive counterpart only in involving a Voice head. The structure is uniform across language families and types, and this theory is supported by the fact that the core grammatical relations within simple sentences of all human languages are essentially identical. Empirical evidence supporting this generalization is served, in particular, by the.
Register a Free 1 month Trial Account. The derivation and control of infinitive complements in Russian; 5. Rooth 1996; Erteschik-Shir 1997, 110—116 , in particular in that elements outside of the focus domain cannot constitute the scope of the restrictive. A very preliminary version of this paper has been presented at Moscow Syntax and Semantics in October 2009, and I also express gratitude to the audience for useful comments. Each verb in natural language is associated with a set of arguments, which are not systematically predictable from the verb's meaning and are realized syntactically as the projected sentence's subject, direct object, etc.
A stem can have up to three arguments, so the complete diathesis consists of the four pairs of slots, one for the stem and three for its arguments. Such causatives are also shown to undergo meaning shifts rendering them partly synonymous to their base verbs thus losing the original causative semantics. The pattern of case transmission is determined by the interaction of a complex set of factors—the grammatical function of the controller, the shape of the complementizer, the type of control relation exhaustive or partial , and more. We focus on borrowed morphology both inflectional and derivational and the ways nativizing it across languages. While on the one extreme being able to encode word level selection in multi-word patterns, the system on the other provides a compact format for construction specification, allowing for cross-language comparison both in construction and valence frame inventories. The core system consists of three different types of causative heads, two different types of applicative heads and the external argument introducing head Voice Kratzer 1994. Thus, the sentence like 1a can be represented as in 1b and 1c ibid.
Babby puts forward the theory that this set of arguments the verb's 'argument structure' has a universal hierarchical composition which directly determines the sentence's case and grammatical relations. Theories of argument structure are largely theories about how these additional arguments are introduced, but at present few such theories propose explicit mechanisms for deriving crosslinguistic variation in argument expression. Each verb in natural language is associated with a set of arguments, which are not systematically predictable from the verb's meaning and are realized syntactically as the projected sentence's subject, direct object, etc. Over the past 15 years, both linguists and psycholinguists have shown a growing interest in the idea that syntactic structures can carry meanings that are independent of the meanings of specific words. For instance, 1 is a diathesis of a ditransitive verb. Most of the book is exclusively based on Russian material. I also thank Rolandas Mikulskas, Norbert Ostrowski and Barbara Partee for useful comments on the earlier version of this paper.
Rigorous theoretical analyses are combined with empirical work on specific aspects of argument structure. It presents innovative analyses of theoretical issues of aspectual interpretation in a variety of languages. It examines the hypothesis that the behavior of lexical items may be explained in terms of a very small number of very simple principles. The reader will benefit from acquaintance with this outstanding piece of research in at least two respects. Technically, the diathesis is a 2 × 4 grid where the upper tier represents up to three thematic roles and the lower tier, in turn, the syntactic categories corresponding to them; see 1 below for a tabular notation and 2 for the corresponding linear notation of the diathesis of a three-argument ditransitive predicate.