Digital Library Federation, December 2002. Likewise, pseudorelative permeabilities are time consuming to generate and often inaccurate. The transfer of technology to industry and the general public is a significant component of the program. Ordinary kriging technique is used to interpolate the computed indices and to show the spatial distribution of these indices over the study area. And the software tools used for a reservoir study have to be efficiently connected to each other to help the different specialists to work together. Slowly, reservoir characterization came into its own as a quantitative, multidisciplinary endeavor requiring a vast array of skills and knowledge sets.
Example applications are shown for four field cases. We used published seismic-reflection horizons from the tectonically active Columbus basin, offshore Trinidad, to define the top and base of a Pleistocene submarine fan. Currently, the understanding of the spatial distribution of physical properties within the rocks especially porosity, density, permeability and thermal conductivity is still a challenge and constitutes the biggest barrier for the use of petrophysical data in numerical models. The final task involves surfactants and their interactions with carbon dioxide and reservoir minerals. Furthermore, our results suggest that relatively simple diffusion-based models can produce realistic compensation patterns and future work will be focused on higher-resolution model calibration to seismic-reflection data and the influence of input variables on heterogeneity of channel-and-lobe deposits of slope fans.
Chopra 1988 and Lake and Jensen 1989 indicated that the most promi- nent form of heterogeneity involves some form of permeability variation. Rubin, et al; rock volumes - considerations for relating well log and core data, M. This project will provide information that can maximize hydrocarbon production, minimize formation damage and stimulate new production in Illinois. We have shown that heterogeneities have significant effects on the multiphase behavior at all scales. Contributors focus on the characterization of reservoir processes and cover topics ranging from surface roughness in porous media and reservoir characterization at the mesoscopic scale to shale clast heterogeneities and their effect on fluid flow, permeability patterns in fluvial sandstones, and reservoir management using 3-D seismic data. The chapters that follow deal with reservoir characterization at the megascopic scale; fractal heterogeneity of clastic reservoirs; heterogeneity and effective permeability of porous rocks; and drilling fluid design based on reservoir characterization.
Finally, reservoir characterization flourished with the quantum improvements that have occurred in geophysical acquisition and processing techniques and that allow geophysicists to image internal reservoir complexities. And to perform flow simulation, petrophysical parameters must then be scaled up to reservoir mesh scale. Smith; core sample heterogeneity from laboratory flow experiments, I. Petroleum engineers, scientists, and researchers will find this book of great value. Craig-- a discussion of Douglas E. These slope fans commonly comprise compensationally stacked sandy and muddy architectural elements, including mass-transport deposits, weakly confined to distributary channel-and-lobe deposits, and leveed-channel deposits.
Three geological descriptions involving random permeability variations are used. By-passed mobile and immobile oil remain in the reservoir. The last chapters focus on the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on oil reservoir. In a sense this task is the natural extension of task 1 and, in fact, one of the subtasks uses many of the same statistical procedures for insight into the effects of viscous fingering and heterogeneity. These deposits demonstrate a wide range in eolian expressions and provide an ideal site to understand how eolian heterogeneities affect reservoir properties. The authors show that, on average, the estimate is less than the true value. Many studies have addressed different chemically enhanced methods and associated complications of chemical stabilities to control flooding conformance Kumar and Mandal 2017a, b.
This research deals primarily with phenomena observed when aqueous surfactant solutions are injected into oil reservoirs. We used published seismic-reflection horizons from the tectonically active Columbus basin, offshore Trinidad, to define the top and base of a Pleistocene submarine fan. The limited experimental studies conducted to date seem to suffer from a number of deficiency mainly associated with sample preparation and experimental setup. Graduate Research Assistant: Harpreet Singh Principal Investigator: Larry Lake The objective of this work is to develop integrated decision and risk analysis, involving reservoir modeling static and flow starting from well or seismic data and applying economic analysis procedure using Real Options Valuation. Any textural disruption such as bioturbation or soft-sediment deformation can also increase reservoir quality. The first 20 chapters deal with reservoir characterization at the microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic scales.
Early chapters present the reader with the necessary background in inverse theory, probability and spatial statistics. Dynamic measures include dispersivity and chanelling factors which directly relate to the efficiency of a miscible displacement. Using the simulated data, we find that the F—C plots and the λ—τ plots are capable of identifying whether the connectivity of an injector—producer well pair is through fractures, a high-permeability layer, multiple-layers or through partially completed wells. However, regardless of the segment arrangements, the recoveries in composite cores are less than that obtained from the homogeneous core sample 76. This text also deals with the role of discontinuous vertical flow barriers in reservoir engineering.
The scaling-up process involves the computation of volumetrically-averaged pseudo functions which allow the modeling of complex heterogeneities as well as correcting for numerical diffusion effects. The method produces two coefficients for each injector—producer pair; one parameter, λ, quantifies the connectivity and the other, τ, quantifies the fluid storage in the vicinity of the pair. This chapter introduces the methods used to develop a reservoir characterization based on the data and tools presented in previous chapters. To date, stratigraphic models have been succesfully integrated into numerical models Newson et al. Harris; a dual-porosity, surface, and matrix electrical conduction model for low-contrast resistivity sandstone formations, W. Comparatively, the Navajo Sandstone has superior reservoir quality in both outcrop and core.
Such information includes definition of hydrocarbon resources, characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs, and the implementation of methods that will improve hydrocarbon extractive technology. We compare the results with high resolution numerical simulation and conventional pseudoization methods for three different permeability models. Submarine fans in tectonically active continental-slope basins are targets of petroleum exploration and production. The subsequent chapters are devoted to determination of reservoir properties, such as porosity, mineral occurrence, and permeability variation estimation. Table of Contents Contributors Preface Geological Characterization of Sandstone Reservoirs Characterization of Sandstone Reservoirs in the Cherokee Group Pennsylvanian, Desmoinesian of Southeastern Kansas Geologic Prediction of Shale Continuity, Prudhoe Bay Field Porosity and Mineral Alteration by Fluid Flow Through a Temperature Field Permeability Variations Observed at the Faces of Crossbedded Sandstone Outcrops Permeability Prediction from Well Logs Using Multiple Regression Geostatistics for Permeability Estimation Coding and Extrapolating Expert Information for Reservoir Description Geological Controls on Spatial Variability for One-Dimensional Arrays of Porosity and Permeability Normal to Layering Simulator Parameter Assignment and the Problem of Scale in Reservoir Engineering Reservoir Characterization for Simulation, Hartzog Draw Field, Wyoming Simplified Oil-Water Relative Permeability Expressions Accounting for Hysteresis in the Imbibition Cycle The Development of Pseudo Functions for Three Phase Black Oil Simulators Notes on Stochastic Shales; From Outcrop to Simulation Model How Heterogeneity Affects Oil Recovery Reservoir Heterogeneities and Their Influence on Ultimate Recovery Simulation and Characterization of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs Mixing During Single-Phase Flow in Reservoir Rocks: Models, Effects of Pore Structure and Interpretation of Experiments Workshop Session Report Index. This research project is seeking to model large scale behavior effective permeability, contaminant transport from fine-scale models that account for the geometry of the vugs and the matrix surrounding them. On the other end of the spectrum the ultimate simplification will be a simple model that does empirically quantifies the flow physics in the form of simple to evaluate statistical correlation s.
And, we are making an impact across a broad spectrum of energy and environmental themes. Reservoir characterization is a process for quantitatively assigning reservoir properties, recognizing geologic information and uncertainties in spatial variability. Throughout the book, the emphasis is on formation evaluation and performance. The authors show that a variety of distributions exhibiting different reservoir performance can have the same Dykstra-Parsons coefficient. Part 2 Mesoscopic: reservoir characterization at the mesoscopic scale, P. Eolian unit comparisons reveal several strategies that can improve the accuracy and predictability of simulation models.