MaTb totobht o6ea h cjryiiiaeT hobocth. Vowels in unstressed syllables are articulated less strongly and this changes the pronunciation of some vowels quite considerably. Past passive participle The past passive participle is normally formed from the perfective verb. The word pyccKaa as well as being the feminine form of the adjective 'Russian' can also mean 'a Russian woman'. For example: a Feminine nouns ending in -b: onepeab 'queue'; b onepeaH 'in a queue'. It was a real white Christmas and grandmother's house was so beautiful. The adjective SojibHoii means 'painful, sick': 6ojibH6ii peSenoK 'a sick child'; 6o.
When she saw the primitive conditions and experienced all the hardship of life there, she moved back to the town. We saw the beautiful lake Rizza Pmma with its blue water. Oh 6o«ibH6fi 'He is an invalid'. Bonpocbi - Questions Answer the following questions about yourself in Russian. Russian realia Read the advertisements for three Moscow shops before planning a trip to buy food.
This spelling rule affects the endings of some verbs — see below. Oh ayMaji, hto oh npocTyarijica, icoraa oh jiobhjt pw6y Ha 63epe y Caiim. Hm HiflO 6y,aeT paSoTaTb 'they will have to work'. Inversion of numeral and noun If the numeral is placed after the noun it means that the number is approximate: Ohh exajiH naca Tpn 'They travelled for about three hours'. Reply first in the affirmative and then in the negative.
The accusative plural of animate nouns is the same as the genitive. Usually the genitive is used rather than hcm after a short comparative. Russian realia Examine the poster for the Bolshoi Theatre and answer the questions below. This presents the main grammatical forms dealt with in the book in tables for easy reference. He had a dreadful heachache and his throat hurt. K 'towards'; 'to the house of '; 'by in expressions of time '; 'to in certain specific expressions ': oh wjier k aoiwy 'he walks towards the house'; oh tinex b tocth k Came 'he is paying a visit to Sasha's house'; k yTpy 'by morning'. Many problems were discussed, especially the difficult situation of the working mother.
It means myself, yourself, himself, etc. This spelling rule affects the neuter ending of some adjectives - see below. What is to be done? It will be useful to study this section in conjunction with the tapes as the English equivalents are only approximate. Past passive participles are the equivalent of the participle in English, which, in regular verbs, ends in -ed. Stem ends in -3 The first person singular ends in -»cy.
It rained hard that day and it was very cold. TaM y CaniH jkact ero Gojibuioii o6e,n. Tbi aojiaceH exaTb b ropofl. Accusative of masculine nouns The accusative of masculine animate nouns is the same as the genitive: ona jii56ht cbuna 'she loves her son'. Examples: T16cJie Toro ksik mm noo6ezia. KaK th ayMaeiiib, Koraa 3T0 6mjio? Kay Typeset by Transet Typesetters Ltd, Coventry, England Printed and bound in Great Britain by Clays Ltd, St.
I watch the Russian news every evening. What is the matter with you? We are still interested in sport, play tennis in summer and swim in winter. They can be followed by an object. Then answer it using the adjective in brackets. It is formed in the same way as an imperfective gerund but from the perfective verb. Another, much smaller group of adjectives is described as soft. The instrumental of kto is weM and of hto is neM: KeM oh xoieT SbiTb? Feminine nouns Nouns ending in -a remove the -a: nepeflana — nepcaan; ra3exa — ra3er.
However, only words like xcypnaji, whose accusative form is the same as their nominative, have been used in the accusative. We also travelled while we were there. B is pronounced like English V but with the lower lip behind the upper teeth: B6;ira. Nominative kto hto Accusative Koro hto Genitive Koro nero Dative Koiwy neiviy Prepositional kom h6m Koiwy Tbi noMoraeuib? Khcb 2 Complete the sentence using the correct form of the adjective. Use of the imperfective gerund Imperfective gerunds are used to describe another action performed at the same time and by the same person as the main verb in the sentences. Consonants followed by a b are softened or 'palatalized'.
It is not difficult to speak English. The perfective imperative is used to order the completion of a single action. There is no direct equivalent of a. Recorded by native speakers, the audio material features the dialogues and texts from the book and will help develop your listening and pronunciation skills. For three days we stayed on the shore of the lake, and admired the picturesque Caucasian countryside. The preceding elements are simply cardinal numbers as in English. Note that all forms of iwaTb and aoHb apart from nominative and accusative have -ep- before the ending.
Many of its problems have still not been solved. This -y ending occurs only after b and na. Maphha: O0, KaKaa 6ojibuiaa onepeflb! Nouns ending in -hh generally do not have a soft sign in the genitive plural: necnn — necen. Bm is used both for the plural and when talking to one person with whom you are on polite terms. The Russian letter p the 'r' sound is rolled. The instrumental plural of hard adjectives for all genders is -mmh and of soft and mixed adjectives is -hmh.